12 Principles of Animation


1). Squash and stretch

This gives flexibility to objects. An example of squash and stretch is a rubber bouncing ball. The way the object squashes and stretches tells the viewer what material it is made of and how heavy it is.


2). Anticipation

Anticipation is the preparation for an action; if an object is about to travel in one direction it will momentarily move in the opposite. This movement builds momentum, and is something that is often seen in real life.


3). Slow in and slow out

Objects need time to accelerate and to slow down, like in real life. If this is not used, movements will look unnatural and robotic.

slow in & slow out.gif

4). Follow through and overlapping action

Follow through is the idea that parts of an object keep moving after it has come to a stop. Overlapping action is similar, as it means that parts of the body may move at different times (e.g. when waving the shoulder may go up first).


5). Arcs

Objects in real life use arcs when moving – if someone moved in a straight line it would look robotic.


6). Exaggeration

Exaggeration is pushing objects


7). Timing


8). Solid drawing

solid drawings.gif

9). Appeal


10). Straight ahead and pose to pose

straight ahead & pose to pose.gif

11). Secondary action


12). Staging



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